Literatura e ensino de História: racismo e cidadania no contexto de sala de aula

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


The Teaching of History in Brazil is a research field established starting the efforts of researchers concerned, among others, with the space of languages in the classroom, especially traditional ones, such as literature. Thus, the present work aims to analyze the presence of the concepts of racism and citizenship, in the teaching of History, problematizing them through and from literature. For that, we chose as primary sources the novels O Mulato (1881) and O Cortiço (1889), works by the Brazilian writer Aluísio Tancredo Gonçalves de Azevedo. From this choice, we built a methodology that uses the works as a source of discussions around and from the problematization of the concepts of racism and citizenship in the history discipline, in Basic Education. The research draws on other literary works, both period and contemporary, such as the Germinal novels, A Mulata, Úrsula, XIX century novels, and, Um defeito de cor, O racismo explicado aos meus filhos, contemporary works. The work methodology was also based on the approximation of theoretical aspects located in the field of historiography and History Teaching. The results achieved allow to indicate that literary art, represented in Aluísio Azevedo, is a fruitful path for didactic-pedagogical proposals interested in addressing the concepts of racism and citizenship in the history discipline and in relation to the social and political formation of Brazil in the context of the analyzed sources , the 19th century. For their historical value, O Mulato e O Cortiço means, for the teaching of History, the opportunity to problematize racism and citizenship in the context of the historical formation of Brazilian society. O Mulato allows, above all, to discuss the place of the black in the slave society and how this is related to the formation of racial prejudice in Brazil, based on the historicity of racism. Likewise, O Cortiço allows critical analyzes about the construction of citizenship in Brazil, something that can be done from the perspective of slavery, the life of popular workers and the tenement as a popular housing at the end of the 19th century. The issue of rights in the history discipline. For the classroom, this research indicates the possibility of thinking about racism and citizenship in their historicity regimes, and the history teacher can promote dialogues with aspects of the configuration of concepts in contemporary times. This reflection helps in the construction of meanings for historical knowledge in the classroom, as it takes into consideration the present and past relationship, in view of the observation of current issues, in which the student is inserted, and in relation to racism and citizenship.



Ensino de História, Literatura, Racismo, Cidadania, Ensino aprendizagem, History teaching, Literature, Racism, Citizenship, Teaching learning


ROCHA, João Pedro P. Literatura e ensino de História: racismo e cidadania no contexto de sala de aula. 2020. 128 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em História) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Catalão, 2020.