Raciocínio lógico-analítico: uma proposta de conteúdo e abordagem para o ensino médio e para concursos públicos

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


This work aims to propose a method of teaching the fundamentals of mathematical logic for high school students, with a view to the development of critical and analytical reasoning, enabling them to exams for selection, especially for competitions of public agencies. The inclusion of exams on logical and analytical reasoning in several public examinations at the middle and higher levels shows that the capacity to think critically has been widely recognized in Brazil. However, critical thinking in general is not taught in Brazilian schools, unfortunately, this subject is not even part of the curricular matrix of high school mathematics, for public schools. The work presents, in a language accessible and adapted to the average students level, the logical bases for the construction and critical analysis of arguments, not only the deductive ones, of the formal logic, but also the inductive ones, so present in the daily life of the people. For this, from the notion of sets studied in high school, we arrived at the formal system of logic, where we presented the alphabet, operators and equivalence relations, with their definitions and theorems. Progressively, we came to the study of arguments. For the deductive arguments, from the validity theorem, a set of techniques, including an innovative diagramming technique, was presented for the analysis of these arguments. In sequence, a chapter was devoted to the study of Aristotle's categorical propositions and their syllogisms. Finally, the arguments and fallacies of informal logic were presented through the study of analogic, enumerative and hypothetical inductions.



Fundamentos da lógica, Argumentação lógica, Raciocínio crítico e analítico, Fundamentals of logic, Logical argumentation, Critical and analytical reasoning


SOUSA, W. E. Raciocínio lógico-analítico: uma proposta de conteúdo e abordagem para o ensino médio e para concursos públicos. 2019. 236 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Matemática em Rede Nacional) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Catalão, 2019.