Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru refrigerado em relação ao enquadramento legal e o efeito da sazonalidade sobre o preço pago aos produtores

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Universidade Federal de Goiás


Milk is a highly nutritious agricultural product and the basis of a productive chain that generates employment and income, but its quality is historically deficient and seasonal in several regions of Brazil, affected mainly by climatic variations and production conditions. In order to improve the quality of this raw material, control measures and incentives have been implemented by the dairy sector, such as normative instructions and payment for quality. Regulatory criteria are very strict, but if milk quality is not legally satisfactory, it may not only affect industrial yield but also food security and producer remuneration. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the quality of raw milk refrigerated in relation to the legal framework and the effect of its seasonality on the price paid to producers. Results of monthly analyzes of fat, lactose, protein, total dry stratum (TDS), dry defatted stratum (DDS), somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) of 35,245 samples of milk from expansion tanks of the Catalan/GO Microregion. The averages were analyzed for variance and Tukey's test (p≤0.05) for comparison of means, considering the effects of the months, seasons and periods (dry and rainy) of the year, besides the legal parameters and model of Parameters for Milk Quality Payment (PMQP). According to legal parameters, the quality of refrigerated raw milk from expansion tanks was not adequate, as approximately 25% of the samples presented legal disagreement. The total bacterial count (TBC) was the only requirement whose geometric means were above the maximum limits allowed, and the somatic cell count (SCC) was reduced in the percentage of samples in legal compliance in the temporal period. The quality of the milk was better in the months of April to June (autumn) and in the dry period of the year, when it presented high physicochemical composition and reduced microbiological composition in relation to the other periods. Considering the 'Parameters for Milk Quality Payment' (PMQP) proposed in this study, the seasonality of milk quality influenced the price paid to producers, providing a subsidy of 3.8% to 6.9% in their remuneration. The biggest bonuses occurred in April and May, in the fall and dry period of the year, being the major contributions of fat and protein, while TBC caused a penalty. The results show that the main problems of the quality of refrigerated raw milk are those related to hygiene in the production and maintenance of the product and express the relevance of programs that penalize the goals not reached, but which also subsidize the quality of milk as an incentive for producers to produce Of good quality milk. Future studies are expected to be closer to the dairy farms and producers in order to guide and justify appropriate quality improvement programs for this raw material.



Leite cru refrigerado, Qualidade do leite, Adequação à legislação, Instruções normativas, Instruções normativas, Parâmetros para pagamento, Refrigerated raw milk, Milk quality, Compliance with legislation, Normative norms, Seasonality of quality,, Payment by quality, Parameters for payment


GUIMARÃES, A. J. S. Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru refrigerado em relação ao enquadramento legal e o efeito da sazonalidade sobre o preço pago aos produtores. 2017. 126 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Gestão Organizacional) - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Catalão, 2017.